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Set 1, Slide 81, Cross Section, Lightfield
Pine Linked Set



StemCS Linked Set

Stem CS


Pine Stem CS 40x

A cross-section of pine stem has several concentric rings with distinct borders between each ring. The center of the stem is called pith. Pith contains many big cells. Also, an anual cycle ring is visible on the stem. There are several big holes that are speculated to be water pipes. There is an interesting trace of outgrowth on the bottom left corner. That area appears to be blurry.


Pith is the center of the stem. The cells in pith are circular and bigger compared to other cells in different rings.Some cells in pith appear with their internal structure.

Image Data Description
Pine Stem CS - Pith 100x
A few cells in the center appear with its cytoplasm and nucleus. The internal structure of these cells are distinct compared other cells.
Pine Stem CS - Pith 400x
When closed up closely, the cells appear with more details of their internal sturctures. White objects inside the cells are interesting.


Xylem is the largest part that comprise the stem. It is also comprised of many cells, but these cells' sizes and shapes are various. An annual cycle ring is found in the xylem.

Image Data Description
Pine Stem CS - Xylem 200x
The sizes and shapes of the cells are not constant. Some cells are narrow and long while other cells are more likely rectangular and spacious. A different color of the cell walls indicates an annual cycle ring.
Pine Stem CS - Xylem 400x
There are two wells formed by cells. These wells are called resin canal. The cells that formed are called resin-secreting cells. The resin canal acts as a water pipe in leaves or stem.
Pine Stem CS - Xylem 400x
This linear, dark area is called a ray. A ray is comprised of some cells. The cells inside of a ray have distinct nucleus.


Cambium is one of concentric ring that comprise the stem. The cells found in cambium are gigantic and contain great details of internal structures.

Image Data Description
Pine Stem CS - Cambium 200x
Cells at the bottom of the image contain pear black substance. Other cells at the middle appear with their nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall, and other internal parts.
Pine Stem CS - Cambium 400x
The cells in the image seem to be packed together or squeezed. They are extremely thin compared to other cells.


Cortexs are bubble-like objects that are found around edges of the stem. They seem to contain white bubbles inside of them. They are all circular, but the sizes of them are not constant.

Image Data Description
Pine Stem CS - Cortex 200x
Cortexs in this image contain many white bubbles. Also, the sizes of the bubbles are various, and some cortexs don't have the white bubbles.
Pine Stem CS - Cortex 400x
It seems to be the white bubbles are packed into the cortex like a bunch of frog's eggs.


This area seems to be a trace of outgrowth of cambium ring. This area is comprised of many cells and horizontal tubular objects.

Image Data Description
Pine Stem CS - Outgrowth 200x
There are many tubular objects that look like heading toward pith from cambium ring. These objects look like wrinkles on the surface of them.
Pine Stem CS - Outgrowth 400x
Many plant cells are also found in this area. Two cells at the center of the image seem to be in a process of reproduction. They are speculated to be in telophase.



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