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 Touchspin Biology

Human Dog Pig Rabbit Fish Frog
Bacteria Protists
Butterfly Dragonfly Honeybee Housefly Mosquito
Insect Parts
Eye Mouth Wing
Pine Fern Ipomoea Lillium Zea
Plant Parts
Leaf Root Stem CS Stem LS

Set 1, Slide 80, Cross Section, Lightfield
Pine Linked Set



Root Linked Set



Pine Root CS - 40xPine Root LS Labeled

A cross-section of pine root seems to have many tiny holes. These holes are speculated to be water pipes of the root. The root is generally divided into three layers: pith, xylem, and cortex layer.

Wayne's Word provides a detailed diagram of a pine root.


Pith layer is most inner layer of those three layers in the pine root. Pith layer is consisted of many holes. These holes seem to be circular, and some of these holes are filled with greenish substances.

Image Data Description
Pine Root CS - Pith 200x
The center of the pine root seems to be empty. The holes that comprise the pith layer  appear to be circular.
Pine Root CS - Pith 400x
Some of the holes look like filled with greenish substances. These substances seem to have little bit rough texture.


Xylem is the middle layer. Xylem layer contains many gigantic holes that are speculated to be water pipes of the root. The edge of the holes are red. In addition, rays, or lines that appear on the layer, are found in this layer. Small holes that comprise the layer seems to be ellipse rather than circular.

Image Data Description
Pine Root CS - Xylem 200x
These circular holes seem to be water pipes. Interestingly, the edge of these holes is red.
Pine Root CS - Xylem 400x
There is a distinct line that goes cross the xylem layer. This line is called ray. The ray seems to be filled with greenish substances so that they appear darker and distinct.


Cortex is the most outer layer. Epidermis of the root touches the cortex layer. Holes that comprise the cortex layer now seem to be rectangular. Resin ducts are found on the layer. Resin ducts appear like dark dusts that sticking on the layer.

Image Data Description
Pine Root CS - Cortex 100x
The holes appear to be rectangular, and most holes seem to be filled with greenish substances. The epidermis of the root appears in the image.
Pine Root CS - Cortex 400x
These are closed-up of resin ducts. These two resin ducts appear to be dark look slightly similar to a bunch of frog's eggs.



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